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Vietnam's network topology is in constant flux; our analysis applies to the infrastructure as it existed at the time of our testing.

Vietnam's primary, state-owned gateway, Viet Nam Data Communications Co.

Vietnam's Internet filtering regime demonstrates an ongoing struggle between the desire to increase Internet usage for economic purposes and the desire to limit its effects politically, and between the capabilities of filtering technology and the limitations of bandwidth, ISP resources, and users' tolerance.

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Sensitive issues in Vietnam include corruption, ethnic unrest, and political opposition, including topics related to democracy or criticism of the state's single-party system.4 The Vietnamese government is concerned about allegations of corruption after several high-profile incidents, including the firing of the minister for agriculture and rural development in June 2004 for failing to prevent a multi-million dollar (USD) corruption scandal in his ministry,5 allegations of corruption in the Vietnam Post and Telecommunications Corporation (VNPT, the state telco provider),6) and embezzlement in the Transportation Ministry that led to the minister's resignation and to the arrest of a deputy minister.7 The Prime Minister announced plans for an anti-corruption agency in late 2004.8 The state is also concerned about ethnic unrest, particularly in rural areas.If online information is not controlled well, it can be a bad influence." 13 Vietnam worries particularly about the use of the Internet to promote political reform, opposition groups, or viewpoints critical of the state in areas such as international relations.14 Critiques of the state or its high-level leaders remain taboo.15 Amnesty International claims that at least 10 people have been arrested for political activity using the Internet, with seven sentenced to prison.16 For example, Nguyen Dan Que was sentenced to 30 months in jail for writing and posting on the Internet an article about the lack of freedom of information in Vietnam; he was released as part of an amnesty in February 2005, but remains under surveillance.17 Dissident Le Chi Quang was sentenced to four years in prison for posting an online article that criticized a border accord between China and Vietnam.18 Finally, Vietnam is sensitive to criticism regarding its record on human rights.With so many Vietnam chat room possibilities available, finding the ideal person for Vietnam chat, Vietnam dating or Vietnam marriage has never been so straightforward.Find that special Vietnamese or Western chat partner for friendship, dating, romance, marriage or something more today!At the edge of the network, Internet agents, such as cybercaf├ęs, connect to the Internet service provider (ISP) with which they have signed their agency contract.32 ISPs may connect with each other and with Internet exchange points (IXPs), except that private ISPs may not connect with each other in peering arrangements.33 Online service providers (OSPs) and Internet content providers (ICPs) may connect to ISPs and IXPs.

34 IXPs can connect with each other (peering) and with the international Internet.35 Thus, connectivity is managed so that only IXPs may maintain connections with the wider Internet.36 ISPs must obtain upstream access by leasing it from IXPs.

Vietnam purports to prevent access to Internet sites primarily to safeguard against obscene or sexually explicit content.

Vietnam's Internet infrastructure and market are dynamic and fast-changing, but it seems inescapable that the state's on-line information control will deepen and grow.

VN domain reportedly had 11,533 registered domains, with about 400-600 new .

VN domain names being registered each day.29 Vietnam is also planning to implement a state-controlled Vietnamese-language second-level domain,30 presumably similar in concept to the new Chinese-language top-level domains set up by China.31 Blogging remains quite limited in Vietnam, and most bloggers who post from inside the state do so in English.

Pre-paid Internet access cards are readily available and provide a measure of anonymity to users who employ them.23 The state expressly works to reduce access costs "to quickly popularize the Internet in Vietnam and further enhance the competitive edge of Vietnamese enterprises in the process of international economic integration."24 Vietnamese online services, though, are still nascent: a research group from the Ho Chi Minh City University of Natural Sciences is working to create a Vietnamese search engine based on keywords, as there are few search engines currently available to Vietnamese users.25 Vietnam has adopted TCVN 6901 as the official method of representing Vietnamese 16-bit characters online,26 though older character sets such as VIQR and Windows Vietnam cp1258 may also be used.27 Vietnam controls the allocation of domain names under the country code top-level domain (cc TLD) .